Saturday, October 27, 2007

Description of all commands in DOS

Here is a brief description of all the commands in DOS, that I listed as an index earlier.

A :::::::::::

ANSI.SYS
Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.
APPEND
Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command.
ARP
Displays, adds, and removes ARP information from network devices.
ASSIGN
Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter.
ASSOC
View the file associations.
AT
Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
ATMADM
Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager.
ATTRIB
Display and change file attributes.

B :::::::::::

BATCH
Recovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file.
BOOTCFG
Recovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini
BREAK
Enable / disable CTRL + C feature.

C :::::::::::

CACLS
View and modify file ACL's.
CALL
Calls a batch file from another batch file.
CD
Changes directories.
CHCP
Supplement the International keyboard and character set information.
CHDIR
Changes directories.
CHKDSK
Check the hard disk drive running FAT for errors.
CHKNTFS
Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors.
CHOICE
Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch file.
CLS
Clears the screen.
CMD
Opens the command interpreter.
COLOR
Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
COMMAND
Opens the command interpreter.
COMP
Compares files.
COMPACT
Compresses and uncompress files.
CONTROL
Open Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
CONVERT
Convert FAT to NTFS.
COPY
Copy one or more files to an alternate location.
CTTY
Change the computers input/output devices.

D :::::::::::

DATE
View or change the systems date.
DEBUG
Debug utility to create assembly programs to modify hardware settings.
DEFRAG
Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs.
DEL
Deletes one or more files.
DELETE
Recovery console command that deletes a file.
DELTREE
Deletes one or more files and/or directories.
DIR
List the contents of one or more directory.
DISABLE
Recovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers.
DISKCOMP
Compare a disk with another disk.
DISKCOPY
Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk.
DOSKEY
Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past.
DOSSHELL
A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users.
DRIVPARM
Enables overwrite of original device drivers.

E :::::::::::

ECHO
Displays messages and enables and disables echo.
EDIT
View and edit files.
EDLIN
View and edit files.
EMM386
Load extended Memory Manager.
ENABLE
Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver.
ENDLOCAL
Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.
ERASE
Erase files from computer.
EXIT
Exit from the command interpreter.
EXPAND
Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it's original format.
EXTRACT
Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets.

F :::::::::::

FASTHELP
Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them.
FC
Compare files.
FDISK
Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive.
FIND
Search for text within a file.
FINDSTR
Searches for a string of text within a file.
FIXBOOT
Writes a new boot sector.
FIXMBR
Writes a new boot record to a disk drive.
FOR
Boolean used in batch files.
FORMAT
Command to erase and prepare a disk drive.
FTP
Command to connect and operate on a FTP server.
FTYPE
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.

G :::::::::::

GOTO
Moves a batch file to a specific label or location.
GRAFTABL
Show extended characters in graphics mode.

H :::::::::::

HELP
Display a listing of commands and brief explanation.

I :::::::::::

IF
Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing.
IFSHLP.SYS
32-bit file manager.
IPCONFIG
Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values.


K :::::::::::

KEYB
Change layout of keyboard.

L :::::::::::

LABEL
Change the label of a disk drive.
LH
Load a device driver in to high memory.
LISTSVC
Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers.
LOADFIX
Load a program above the first 64k.
LOADHIGH
Load a device driver in to high memory.
LOCK
Lock the hard disk drive.
LOGON
Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login.

M :::::::::::

MAP
Displays the device name of a drive.
MD
Command to create a new directory.
MEM
Display memory on system.
MKDIR
Command to create a new directory.
MODE
Modify the port or display settings.
MORE
Display one page at a time.
MOVE
Move one or more files from one directory to another directory.
MSAV
Early Microsoft Virus scanner.
MSD
Diagnostics utility.
MSCDEX
Utility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM.

N :::::::::::

NBTSTAT
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT
NET
Update, fix, or view the network or network settings
NETSH
Configure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS.
NETSTAT
Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information.
NLSFUNC
Load country specific information.
NSLOOKUP
Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network.

P :::::::::::

PATH
View and modify the computers path location.
PATHPING
View and locate locations of network latency.
PAUSE
Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command.
PING
Test / send information to another network computer or network device.
POPD
Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command.
POWER
Conserve power with computer portables.
PRINT
Prints data to a printer port.
PROMPT
View and change the MS-DOS prompt.
PUSHD
Stores a directory or network path in memory so it can be returned to at any time.

Q :::::::::::

QBASIC
Open the QBasic.

R :::::::::::

RD
Removes an empty directory.
REN
Renames a file or directory.
RENAME
Renames a file or directory.
RMDIR
Removes an empty directory.
ROUTE
View and configure windows network route tables.
RUNAS
Enables a user to execute a program on another computer.

S :::::::::::

SCANDISK
Run the scandisk utility.
SCANREG
Scan registry and recover registry from errors.
SET
Change one variable or string to another.
SETLOCAL
Enables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else.
SETVER
Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs.
SHARE
Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
SHIFT
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program.
SHUTDOWN
Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt.
SMARTDRV
Create a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory.
SORT
Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen.
START
Start a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt.
SUBST
Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter.
SWITCHES
Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
SYS
Transfer system files to disk drive.

T :::::::::::

TELNET
Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt.
TIME
View or modify the system time.
TITLE
Change the title of their MS-DOS window.
TRACERT
Visually view a network packets route across a network.
TREE
View a visual tree of the hard disk drive.
TYPE
Display the contents of a file.

U :::::::::::

UNDELETE
Undelete a file that has been deleted.
UNFORMAT
Unformat a hard disk drive.
UNLOCK
Unlock a disk drive.

V :::::::::::

VER
Display the version information.
VERIFY
Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly.
VOL
Displays the volume information about the designated drive.

X :::::::::::

XCOPY
Copy multiple files, directories, and/or drives from one location to another.

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Play A Movie In Microsoft Paint

Yes, you can see a movie in MS-Paint too !

Here's how to do it :::

#1. Start a movie in any player.

#2. Open Paint.

#3. Now, in the player when the movie is being played, press "Print screen" button on your keyboard.

#4. Press CTR+V in Paint

#5. Leave the movie player open and don't minimize it.

#6. Open Paint & you can see the movie in the Paint!

*****
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Friday, October 12, 2007

What do you do in your garage?

I wish I knew about this one before I finished setting up my garage that stores my motor bike and dad’s car. There is nothing much besides minor servicing and cleaning jobs that I undertake in my garage, but a visit to www.carguygarage.com makes me wish I did a few things else there too with some of their stuff set up, kind of showing it off to my friends at a garage party or sort. www.carguygarages.com carry over 1000 products for garages like fluorescent lighting, flooring, storage cabinets, etc.

A place you must visit, if you have anything on mind synchronous with “garages.”


(This is a sponsored post.)

External Commands

Continued in Everything about DOS...



In the previous post, we saw that INTERNAL COMMANDS are those commands that are in present in the file COMMAND.COM. These are loaded into the memory every time the computer boots up.

Obviously not all of the commands can be loaded into the system memory at boot-up because they may not be needed, may be they are used infrequently or maybe they are too heavy in size. These commands are, hence, not included in command.com but are placed separately as individual files in the Windows System Directory (x:\windows\system32\ for Windows XP but may depend on the installation if customized. X:\ is the drive letter in which the Windows is installed.)

These commands can then be called from command-line as and when needed. These commands are known as EXTERNAL COMMANDS

LIST OF EXTERNAL COMMANDS:

append

assign

attrib

backup

chkdsk

command

comp

dblspace

debug

defrag

deloldos

deltree

diskcomp

diskcopy

doskey

dosshell

edit

emm386

exe2bin

expand

fasthelp

fastopen

fc

fdisk

find

format

graftabl

graphics

help

himem

interlnk

intersvr

join

keyb

label

mem

memmaker

mirror

mode

more

msav

msbackup

mscdex

msd

nlsfunc

power

print

replace

restore

scandisk

select

setver

share

sort

subst

sys

tree

undelete

unformat

vsafe

xcopy

Please note that you might not find all of these files on every computer. This will depend on things like which version of DOS you have installed. In some cases Microsoft replaced one file with a different file in later versions. An example of this is CHKDSK (i.e. "Check Disk"). This name survives in Windows NT, but in DOS (and later, Windows) this program/applet was replaced by the later SCANDISK. So look at this as a list of some of the files you might find on your computer. You may have some that are not on this list, as well. Also, note that other programs will sometimes install files in the DOS directory. In particular, Windows 3.x installed many of its files in this directory, and sometimes updated the versions that DOS originally installed.

One file that is very important, though it is not a DOS command, is the included copy of BASIC. In earlier versions of DOS this was called GWBASIC, and in later versions, QBASIC. One of the important external commands, EDIT, is actually a BASIC program, and will not run unless BASIC is present.

Extensions, Help, and associated files

External commands are files, and as such have file extensions. Generally these will be either *.EXE or *.COM. An *.EXE file is what is called an executable file. This is a file that is compiled to run as a program. To this day, any Windows program is run from an *.EXE file. The other type. *.COM, is the original "Dot Com". This refers to a command file. A few of these files will be *.SYS, which are system files, such as the IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS files we discussed in Lesson 2. Another file type is the *.OVL file, which means overlay. This file type is found with backup programs, particularly.

Often these external files will come with Help files as well. Help files have the extension *.HLP which can be viewed with Windows Help Viewer in-built program.


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Internal Commands

Continued in Everything about DOS...

COMMAND.COM is the filename of the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). This file is loaded during the boot process, which means that COMMAND.COM is resident in memory at all times, and the commands that it understands are available to the user at all times It also has an additional role, as the first program run after boot, hence being responsible for setting up the system by running the AUTOEXEC.BAT configuration file, and being the ancestor of all processes.

As a shell, COMMAND.COM has two distinct modes of work. First is the interactive mode, in which the user types commands which are then executed immediately. The second is the batch mode, which executes a predefined sequence of commands stored as a text file with the extension .BAT. Its function as the default command interpreter is analogous to that of the Unix shells, although COMMAND.COM's functionality is considerably more limited than that of its Unix counterparts.

cmd.exe is COMMAND.COM's successor on Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 and OS/2. COMMAND.COM is also available on those systems to provide compatibility when running DOS applications. On NT systems, COMMAND.COM is run within the Virtual DOS Machine.


A command that is stored in the system memory and loaded from this file COMMAND.COM is known as INTERNAL COMMAND.

As I told in my earlier post in the series, all commands are run only after the Enter key is pressed at the end of the line. COMMAND.COM is not case-sensitive, meaning commands can be typed in either case and are all equivalent (so dir, DIR and DiR will all work in the same way).

List of Internal Commands

Here are all of the 62 Internal Commands contained within the COMMAND.COM command interpreter:

break

buffers

call

cd

chcp

chdir

choice

cls

copy

country

ctty

date

del

device

devicehigh

dir

dos

drivparm

echo

erase

errorlevel

exist

exit

fcbs

files

for

goto

if

include

install

lastdrive

lh

loadfix

loadhigh

md

menucolor

menudefault

menuitem

mkdir

move

not

numlock

path

pause

prompt

rd

rem

ren

rename

rmdir

set

shell

shift

stacks

submenu

switches

time

truename

type

ver

verify

vol



Some of these internal commands (e.g. dir, cd) are meant to be executed from the command line, or within a batch file, which is what we think of as a command. Others (e.g. files, switches) are generally used within a configuration file like CONFIG.SYS to help configure your system. Because both CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT use commands that are found in COMMAND.COM, they must load later in the boot process.


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Thursday, October 4, 2007

Qualitative List Of Commands in DOS

Here is the list of all the commands available in MS DOS.
I will be posting the functions and usage of the most commonly used and most important commands in my later posts (continued posts in this "Everything about MS DOS series.)

A

ANSI.SYS | APPEND | ARP | ASSIGN | ASSOC | AT | ATMADM | ATTRIB

B

BATCH | BACKUP | BOOTCFG | BREAK

C

CACLS | CALL | CD | CHCP | CHDIR | CHKDSK | CHKNTFS | CHOICE | CIPHER | CLS | CMD | COLOR | COMMAND | COMP | COMPACT | CONTROL | CONVERT | COPY | CTTY

D

DATE | DEBUG | DEFRAG | DEL | DELETE | DELTREE | DIR | DISABLE | DISKCOMP | DISKCOPY | DISKPART | DOSKEY | DOSSHELL | DRIVPARM

E

ECHO | EDIT | EDLIN | EMM386 | ENABLE | ENDLOCAL | ERASE | EXIT | EXPAND | EXTRACT

F

FASTHELP | FC | FDISK | FIND | FINDSTR | FIXBOOT | FIXMBR | FOR | FORMAT | FTP | FTYPE

G

GOTO | GRAFTABL

H

HELP | HOSTNAME

I

IF | IFSHLP.SYS | IPCONFIG

K

KEYB

L

LABEL | LH | LISTSVC | LOADFIX | LOADHIGH | LOCK | LOGON

M

MAP | MD | MEM | MKDIR | MODE | MORE | MOVE | MSAV | MSBACKUP | MSD | MSCDEX | MWBACKUP

N

NBTSTAT | NET | NETSH | NETSTAT | NLSFUNC | NSLOOKUP

P

PATH | PATHPING | PAUSE | PING | POPD | POWER | PRINT | PROMPT | PUSrHD

Q

QBASIC

R

RD | REG | REN | RENAME | RMDIR | ROUTE | RUNAS

S

SCANDISK | SCANREG | SET | SETLOCAL | SETVER | SFC | SHARE | SHIFT | SHUTDOWN | SMARTDRV | SORT | START | SUBST | SWITCHES | SYS | SYSTEMINFO | SYSTEMROOT

T

TASKKILL | TELNET | TIME | TITLE | TRACERT | TREE | TYPE

U

UNDELETE | UNFORMAT | UNLOCK

V

VER | VERIFY | VOL

X

XCOPY


*****
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Tuesday, October 2, 2007

Introduction to Disk Operating System, MS-DOS

NOTE. Though most of the people use MS-Windows, MS-NT or MS Vista that offer intuitive GUI (Graphical User Interface) as against the CLI (Command Line Interface) provided in DOS (Disk Operating System) but this tutorial series “Everything about DOS” is here to educate the students at schools and engineering colleges across India and anywhere else, as well, as they are being taught MS-DOS in practical lectures. I intend to offer this series as a comprehensive online reference tutorial.

Introduction to Disk Operating System (DOS):

Microsoft DOS is a command line user interface first introduced in 1981 for IBM computers and was last updated in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 was released. Although MS-DOS is not commonly used today, the command shell used through Microsoft Windows is.

MS DOS is actually a program that performs “filing system” tasks for your computer system. It organizes files and folders just as filing and organizing paper documents and folders in an office.

Being command-line user interface based, DOS feeds, lives and works on the commands that you type in for it to follow. After you type the command, and hit the return key (the ENTER key), MS DOS finds and executes it. It waits for the next command after the execution of one command.

Will be coming back with DOS

I have found myself an assignment to work upon during all the time that I'll be away from active blogging,and that I will share through techXtreme, that is Disk Operating System or DOS. I'll prepare a tutorial that will help all my classmates at Shahid Udham Singh College of Engineering and Technology by boosting their knowledge for its use in Lab. work and in other practical aspects of using DOS out of academics. I'll be posting the whole tutorial as a multi-post series. I hope I will be able to stand up to the resolution of bringing up a comprehensive guide about anything from nothing to everything about DOS.

Stay Tuned for updates. I am away right now for an indefinite period actually!
:P